2018 – 2019 academic year

   Subject: Microscopy. Preparation of temporary micropreparations
and microscopy technique.
1. The subject of study of biological science, the difference between animate and inanimate nature, the system
biological sciences, methods of biological sciences (research methods in biology)?
2. The fundamental properties of the living and the basic attributes of life that determine them
3. Levels of organization live?
4. The history of the discovery of the cell and its various structural parts. Cell Theory
The main provisions of cell theory?
5. Methods for studying cells?
6. Different types of microscopes (stereoscopic, luminous, phase-contrast,
polarization, etc.). The main parts of optical microscopes and the rule of operation
7. Preparation of temporary and permanent micros.
8. Electron microscopes (scanning and transmission) the role of microscopic
in biology and medicine


Topic: Viruses. Features of the structure of the pro and eukaryotic cells.
1. The main forms of life. Non-cellular life forms. Viruses.
2. The structure of viruses. Simple and complex viruses. Information on DNA containing and RNA
containing viruses. Reproduction of viruses.
3. Parasitic viruses in the human body, ways of human infection and disease
caused by viruses. AIDS virus, structure and routes of infection
4. The structure of the bacteriophage, types of bacteriophages and their significance
5. Cellular life forms. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
6. Prokaryotes (structure, nutrition, difference from eukaryotes). Mycoplasmas.
7. Bacteria (structure, size, genetic material, chemical composition, reproduction,
application, value in medicine.
5. Various forms of bacteria, their importance in medicine.
8. Structure of eukaryotic cells under a light-optical microscope.
Cytoplasm: hyaloplasm and general information about organoids and inclusions.

Topic: Ultrastructural organization of a eukaryotic cell.
1. Eukaryotes (which organisms include, the main components of eukaryotic cells, the size of the form).
2. Cell organelles (characteristic, organelles of general and special significance,
3. Ultra-structural structure and functions of organoids of general importance.
4. Ultra-structure and functions of organoids of special importance.
5. Cellular inclusions and their meanings.
6. The core, its structure and functions.
7. Chromosomes (structure, types, set, rule).
8. Animals and plant cells their similarities and differences.

Topic: Intake of substances into the cell.
1. The elemental composition of the cell: macro, micro and ultramicroelements. Inorganic
substances that are part of the cell. Water is part of the cell.
2. Organic substances are part of the cell. Squirrels, their structure. Simple and
complex proteins, protein structure and function
3. Carbohydrates (monosaccharides, polysaccharides), lipids, their role in the life of cells.
4. Cell wall (give the definition of the outer part and the main part –
plasmolemma). Functions of the cell wall.
5. The structure of the plasmolemma – plasma membrane (chemical composition,
proposed structure models, view under an electron microscope). Main
Plasmo lemma functions.
6. Universal biological membrane (the concept of it, chemical composition, etc.).
7. The metabolism between the cell and the external environment? (Diffusion, osmosis, phagocytosis,
endocytosis, exocytosis, active and passive transport of substances). The concept of Na + and K +
th pump?
8. The concept of solutions and their use in medicine? (hypotonic, isotonic
(physiological), hypertensive).

Theme: The mitotic cycle and the life cycle of a cell.
Cell proliferation.
1. Life and mitotic cell cycle and its periods?
2. Interphase of the mitotic cycle and its periods?
3. Autosynthetic and heterosynthetic interphase.
4. The processes observed in different phases of mitosis?
5. Give examples of cells of organs and tissues as they speed.
updates? (Growth and renewal of cellular complexes).
6. The amount of DNA and the set of chromosomes in each period of the mitotic cycle?
7. Biological and medical significance of mitosis.
8. Other types of mitosis, amitosis, endomitosis, etc.


Theme: Meiotic cell cycle. The biological significance of meiosis.
Reproduction of organisms
1. Meiotic cell cycle.
2. The biological significance of meiosis.
3. Phases observed in the first and second meiotic divisions.
4. Biological significance of asexual and sexual reproduction.
5. Asexual reproduction of single-celled organisms?
6. Sexual reproduction of single-celled organisms?
7. Asexual reproduction of multicellular organisms?
8. Sexual reproduction of multicellular organisms?


Theme: Monohybrid Crossing. Gene interaction one
allelic pair. Multiple allelism.

1. The value of genetics in medicine.
2. Terms used terms in genetics and their definition.
3. The first and second laws of Mendel (Confirm with examples).
4. Cytological basis of inheritance in monohybrid crosses.
5. Interaction of allelic genes.
6. Analyzing crossing.
7. Hypothesis of gamete purity.
8. Multiple allelism. Inheritance of the blood group.

Theme: Dee and Polybreeding. Gene interaction
from different allelic pairs.

1. Dihybrid crossing, III- Mendel’s law.
2. The rule of independent combination of signs?
3. Cytological and genotypic bases of hybrid hybrid.
4. The concept of polybreeding?
5. Complementary genes found in humans?
6. The concept of epistatic genes?
7. Specify the inheritance of polymeric genes in humans?
8. The concept of pleiotropy?

Topic: Chromosomal theory of heredity. Clutch phenomena
gene crossover. Human chromosome maps. Inheritance
signs of sex-linked.

1. Linked inheritance of characters.
2. Groups of linked genes.
3. Violation of coupling genes.
4. Determination of the distance between genes.
5. Genetic map.
6. Signs linked to the floor.
7. Sex ratio.
8. The main provisions of the chromosomal theory of heredity.

Topic: Molecular genetics. Molecular basis of heredity.
The role of DNA in the content and transmission of hereditary information.

1. The concept of the molecular basis of genetics.
2. The chemical structure of DNA.
3. DNA replication and its types
4. Transduction.
5. Transformation.
6. Conjugation.
7. Plasmids.
8. The concept of biotechnology.


Topic: The role of DNA in protein biosynthesis. Genetic engineering.

1. The genetic code. RNA and its synthesis
2. Protein biosynthesis and its stages.
3. Regulation of protein biosynthesis.
4. Induction. Cytoplasmic heredity.
5. Genetic engineering
6. Genetic engineering.
7. Cell engineering.
8. Changes in heredity at the level of the organism and the population.

Theme: Variability. Genetic effects of pollution
the environment.

1. Phenotypic (modification) variability.
2. Genotypic (hereditary) variability. Mutational variability.
Genomic mutations.
3. Chromosomal aberrations.
4. Gene mutations.
5. Somatic and generative mutations.
6. Spontaneous and induced mutagenesis.
7. Recovery of damaged DNA molecules. Antimutagens.
8. Homological series in hereditary variability. (Vavilov’s law)

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